S-adenosyl methionine, S-adenosylmethionine, SAMe, or SAM-e
Food additives play a very important role in food nutrition and food processing. Many food additives play an important role not only in food processing, food texture formation and nutrition and health functions, but also in the treatment of a range of diseases in humans. Play a certain role in the role, such as coenzyme-Q10, DHEA, pineal voxel.
But perhaps the most exciting thing is that the new (emerging), the most effective, the most widely used, is the substance that can be used as a disease treatment and as a food fortifier. Glyco-methionine, a natural metabolite of methylthio-amino acid-methionine, assists the normal functioning of numerous important functions in human body and is a non-toxic, anti-aging health product.
No one will believe that there is such a substance that there are so many incredible things, but it is true. Since the first separation of SAMe by Italian scientists in 1952, it has been used as a prescription treatment for depression and arthritis in Europe. In 1999, the US FDA approved its promotion as a food supplement, and its market demand has increased significantly.
What is adenosylmethionine? What is the role of adenosylmethionine?
S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe), the scientific name S-adenosyl-L-methionine, is a metabolite of thiophene-containing methionine and the main energy substance ATP-adenosinetriphosphate. It is a physiologically active substance present in all tissues and body fluids of the human body. It is involved in the body as a precursor of methyl donor (transmethylation) and physiological sulfhydryl compounds (such as cysteine, taurine, glutathione and coenzyme A) Biochemical reaction. In the liver, the fluidity of the liver cell membrane is regulated by methylation of plasma membrane phospholipids, and the synthesis of the detoxification process can be promoted by the sulfur-transfer reaction.
Adenosylmethionine is neither a herbal herb nor a hormone. It is a microparticle molecule that participates in more than 200 biochemical reactions in the human body. Since its development and production, adenosylmethionine has been used as an anti-inflammatory analgesic, antidepressant, cirrhosis and various causes of liver stagnation. It can also turn liver function abnormalities caused by various causes into normal. In recent years, there have been reports that this substance can inhibit the proliferation of retroviruses (such as HIV) in vitro, and has begun to be applied to the combination therapy of AIDS patients.
At the cellular level, the main effects of S-adenosylmethionine include:
Maintain the function of mitochondrial function properly.
Prevent DNA mutations.
Repairing the fluidity of cell membranes makes cell receptors easier to interact with factors such as hormones.
In addition, S-adenosylmethionine has preventive and therapeutic effects on many diseases. These effects include:
Good liver nutrient. It can prevent alcohol, drugs and cytokines from damage to the liver; prevent cholestasis; prevent chronic active hepatitis and other factors that cause liver damage.
Prevents necrosis (anoxia) caused by hypoxia; promotes tissue regeneration of nerve cells and nerve fibers.
Prevent the occurrence of heart disease, cancer and other diseases.
Antidepressant, the effect is better than the conventional clinical drugs, and the side effects are few.
Prerequisites necessary for the synthesis of pineal voxels.
Treat diseases such as arthritis.
SAMe is involved in more than 200 human biochemical reactions and is one of the by-products of the methyl substitution reaction process. It is a metabolite of methionine and will decrease with age.
SAMe may increase the emotionally transmitted substance and may also turn into sleep-related melatonin. SAMe provides a methyl group and then converts it to cysteine, which is quickly converted to an antioxidant substance via vitamins B1, B6, folic acid and choline. SAMe is important for the synthesis of anti-aging hormone (melatonin), which regulates sleep and wake-up cycles. It promotes the metabolism and sensory functions of dopamine and serotonin in the brain, as well as the marrow surrounding the nerve cells. Phospholipids (myelin) have a repairing effect, can maintain the function of mitochondria, can help protect DNA from mutations and cause cancer, prevent peripheral nerves from being damaged by hypoxia, and help eliminate homocysteine that is harmful to human body. High levels of homocysteine in the blood can cause heart disease, cancer, depression, arthritis and other diseases.
SAMe is a precursor of the methyl donor (transmethylation) and physiological sulfhydryl compounds (such as cysteine, taurine, glutathione and coenzyme A) Biochemical reactions, especially the chemical reactions in the brain; the synthesis of all sulfur-containing substances in the human body requires the help of SAMe, including gum aminosulfur and a variety of sulfur-containing cartilage tissue. In the liver, the fluidity of the liver cell membrane is regulated by methylation of plasma membrane phospholipids, and the synthesis of sulfurized products during detoxification can be promoted by a sulfur-transfer reaction. As long as the bioavailability of intrahepatic adenosylmethionine is within the normal range, these reactions help prevent intrahepatic cholestasis.
It has been found that the synthesis of adenosylmethionine in the liver is significantly reduced in cirrhosis due to a significant decrease in the activity of adenosylmethionine synthetase, which catalyzes the conversion of the essential amino acid methionine to adenosylmethionine. This metabolic disorder reduces the conversion of methionine to adenosine monophosphate, thereby impairing the normal physiological processes that prevent cholestasis. As a result, the plasma clearance of methionine in the diet of patients with cirrhosis is reduced, and the utilization of its metabolites, especially cysteine, glutathione and taurine, is reduced. Moreover, this metabolic disorder also causes high methionineemia, which increases the risk of developing hepatic encephalopathy. Studies have shown that the accumulation of methionine in the body can lead to an increase in the concentration of its degradation products (such as thiol, methyl mercaptan) in the blood, and these degradation products play an important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. Since adenosylmethionine can overcome the disorder of adenosylmethionine synthetase deficiency, the application of adenosylmethionine can increase the synthesis of sulfhydryl compounds, but does not increase the concentration of methionine in the blood circulation. Therefore, the addition of adenosylmethionine to patients with cirrhosis can restore the endogenous levels of essential compounds that reduce bioavailability in liver disease.
SAMe has anti-inflammatory, pain relief and tissue repair functions. It has a remarkable effect on joint diseases. It has obvious effects on promoting chondrogenesis and relieving joint pain, stiffness and swelling. It does not inhibit prostaglandin synthesis compared with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Nor will the gastrointestinal tract be operated. As early as the 1970s, SAMe was used as a prescription drug for the treatment of arthritis in Europe.
Primary fibromyalgia is a chronic non-articular rheumatism with symptoms of multiple pains and stiffness throughout the body, usually accompanied by depression, suspected illness, and paranoia. After 21 days of intramuscular injection of SAMe (200mg/d), the number of pain points was reduced, and the score was reduced according to the Hamilton Depression Scale. Another SAMe oral clinical study showed pain, bad mood, and body after taking the drug. Symptoms such as stiffness are improved.
After injection of SAMe (400 mg/d) for 124 migraine patients for 30 days, the number of patients with severe pain decreased, the duration of headache was shortened, the amount of analgesic medication decreased, and the patient’s mood improved significantly.
The liver is the main site of SAMe synthesis and methylation. Due to liver damage, the synthesis of SAMe in patients with liver disease is blocked, and protein and nucleic acid synthesis, polyamine and cystine supply are limited. Exogenous supplementation of SAMe in patients with liver disease will increase the level of SAMe in the patient’s body, thereby increasing the level of GSH (glutathione) in the liver, which may reduce or even eliminate liver damage. Clinical studies have demonstrated that SAMe is beneficial for the recovery of patients with acute and chronic liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, drug cholestasis, pregnancy cholestasis, ethanol liver and liver cancer. At present, there are many researches on the application of SAMe in the treatment of liver diseases, including acute and chronic liver diseases, ethanol liver and liver cancer. SAMe has also attracted people’s interest as an additive for some liver disease treatment drugs.
SAMe has a significant therapeutic effect in the treatment of depression and was recommended as an antidepressant in Europe in the 1980s. Due to its methylation function, it can promote the metabolism of dopamine and blood complex amines in the brain. The methylation of phospholipids can enhance receptor function, enhance receptor density and improve receptor coupling. In recent years, the study of SAMe’s antidepressant effect has begun to tend to suggest that SAMe promotes phosphorylation of proteins, leading to enhanced transduction of cortical microtubules, thereby effectively improving symptoms of depression and psychosis, increasing patient mood, depression, and eliminating guilt. And suicidal tendencies, and can improve the patient’s reaction to sluggish symptoms. Dr. Richard Brown of Columbia University in New York has used SAM anti-depression for many years in clinical practice, showing that SAMe has a 38% success rate in treating depression, while other prescription drugs such as imipramine and clomipramine are generally effective. 20%. Other studies have shown that SAMe’s antidepressant efficacy is superior to placebo (Placebo), equivalent to the effect of standard tricyclic antidote (s), and it is more effective, only takes about 7-14 days. It is also valid for a longer period of time and does not cause side effects of other prescription drugs, such as dry mouth, bladder problems, gender disorders, dizziness, headache, lethargy, nausea and insomnia, and vision, and rarely interacts with other drugs. use.
SAMe is safe to use, even if it is dose-increasing. It is especially safe for pregnant women and pregnant women. It is the gospel of patients who have been taking some conventional antidepressants for a long time, and is affectionately called “happy pills”. Because of its dual effects of anti-inflammatory, analgesic and mood-improving, it is very effective for some patients with chronic diseases who suffer from depressive symptoms for a long time.
After intravenous injection of SAMe (200 mg/d) in patients with Alzheimer’s disease, their activity, attention, and mood improved significantly after 15 consecutive days, but the improvement in cognitive function was not obvious. After 8 to 14 days of intravenous injection of SAMe (200 mg/d) in patients with epilepsy, the patient’s mood, alertness, and activity improved significantly. The researchers believe that these effects of SAMe are closely related to their antidepressant effects. At present, SAMe’s clinical research on central nervous system diseases also involves bone marrow disease, one of cerebral ischemia and AIDS complications.
Intramuscular injection of SAMe (200mg/d) for 30 days in patients with cirrhosis without cirrhosis, compared with the control group, serum γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (γ-GT), transaminase content decreased, fatigue, anorexia Insomnia, anxiety, depression and other symptoms are alleviated. The researchers believe that this may be related to adenosylmethionine’s anti-liver and anti-depression effects.
Adenosylmethionine can be produced by chemical synthesis and microbial fermentation or enzymatic conversion, but as a food nutrition enhancer, it must be based on biological production. This is also the main industrial production route of adenosylmethionine. The preparation of adenosylmethionine began in the 1950s. First, SAMe is catalyzed by an enzyme extracted from animal liver cells to catalyze ATP and L-methionine. However, this method is not possible to prepare SAMe on a large scale due to the limitation of the source of organs such as animal liver and the complicated enzymatic extraction process. In the future, people are turning more to microbial culture techniques and
Enzymatic catalytic reaction techniques to prepare SAMe. There are two main routes to produce SAMe. One is to culture yeast and filamentous bacteria in a medium containing methionine, accumulate SAMe, and then extract SAMe. Another method is to prepare SAMe synthetase by microbial culture method, using microbial enzyme source, using ATP and methionine as synthetic substrates, and enzymatically catalyzing the coupling of ATP and methionine to synthesize SAMe.
Although adenosylmethionine has such an important role, there is currently no industrial production in China. In addition to market product development, production and extraction and refining technologies are among the problems that need to be overcome.